Parasites Pre/Post Test


Section I. Matching

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on an item in either Column A or B,
  2. click on your answer in the other column,
  3. the matched pair will be automatically entered in the Preview Area at the bottom of the table,
  4. in the Preview Area:
  5. if at any point you are NOT satisfied with a matched pair in the Matched Pairs Area, simply click on the "Remove matched pair" button next to the matched pair and the matched pair will be removed from the Matched pairs Area.
  6. continue until all matched pairs have been added to the Matched Pairs Area,
  7. continue to next section.

Column AColumn B

Below are statements and descriptions of the four phases of the Life Cycle of Gastrointestinal Nematodes. Match the phases below to correct description of that phase.
Phase 1-Parasitic Phase
When larval stages develop and survive.
Phase 2-Contamination Phase
The interaction between the goat and the parasite.
Phase 3-Free living Phase
The result of eggs that are passed in the feces during defecation.
Phase 4-Infection Phase
When available infective larvae are consumed during grazing.

Below are the names of two abomasal worms along with descriptions of the destructive nature of each worm. Match the description to the specific worm.
Barberpole worm
Very small and hard to see. Feed mainly on mucous and do not feed on blood, but can ingest some blood. Infection causes discomfort and loss of appetite. Thrives in cool wet environmental conditions. Death can result.
Brown stomach worm
Blood feeding worm. Female worms are prolific egg laying machines. Worms are rather large. Thrive under hot and moist environmental conditions. Infection is at the lowest level during the winter months. The greater the infection levels the more blood that is lost. Death usually occurs without treatment.

Below are the names of two small intestinal worms along with descriptions of the destructive nature of each worm. Match the description to the specific worm.
Bankrupt worm
Easily seen and are relatively large worms. Can be found in goats throughout the US. Rarely found in the Southeastern part of the US. Possibility of greater numbers of worms found in the cooler areas of the US.
Long-necked bankrupt worm
Small threadlike worm and is the most predominant small intestinal worm. Found in goats throughout the US. Thrives better under cool wet conditions. Feeds on nutrients in mucous and interferes with digestive function resulting in diarrhea. Given its name because death is seldom the end result and the animal simply does not reproduce or perform well.

Below are the names of two large intestinal worms along with descriptions of the destructive nature of each worm. Match the description to the specific worm.
Nodular worm
Easily seen and relatively large in size. Found in goats throughout the US. Worms feed on blood and can contribute to overall anemia. Resides in the large intestine and larvae are found in the mucosa of both large and small intestine.
Whipworm
Found in small numbers and the posterior end of the worm is rather large and can be easily seen. The anterior end of the worm is thread-like. Considered to be blood feeders and contributes to overall blood loss due to other worms. Female worm produce "football" shaped eggs with protruding plugs at each end.

The FAMACHA eye color chart system was developed in South Africa to help producers monitor and evaluate level of anemia without having to rely on laboratory testing. The chart has five different levels of anemia documented. Match those levels below to the degree/level of anemia present:
Red
Non-anemic.
Red-pink
Severely anemic.
Pink
Anemic.
Pink-white
Non-anemic.
White
Mild-anemic.

Below is a list of other parasites that could affect a goat operation. Match those parasites with the correct description/characteristics.
Tapeworm
Can be a major problem in low lying perennial wet areas of the Southeast. Results in unthriftiness, weight loss/reduced gains and sometimes death. The life cycle is indirect requiring an intermediate host. Eggs are passed in the feces and a larval stage called a miracidium develops inside the egg over a period of 2-3 weeks. Eggs then hatch releasing the miracidium which infects a snail. Asexual reproduction occurs in the snail over a period of 5-7 weeks and then the mature larval stage develops.
Liver fluke
Also known as the deer worm. Frequently infects llamas, alpacas and sometimes goats. Small ground dwelling slugs and snails are intermediate hosts. Migration is up the spinal nerves to the spinal cord but then they seem to get lost. Larvae then migrate throughout the spinal cord and the brain. This causes damage to the central nervous system which may be severe enough to cause death.
Lungworms
Infection occurs sporadically in the southeast. Infection results in respiratory distress (chronic coughing), unthriftiness and sometimes death. The life cycle is direct and adult worms live in the goat's organ with larva being passed in the feces. Transmission usually occurs during the cooler months (November-April).
Meningeal worm
Producers are concerned about this parasite because they can see the moving segments (white rice grain-like "worms") in freshly deposited feces. Ingestion is by field mites and infection is transmitted when mites are consumed with forage. Reside in the small intestine, feed by absorbing nutrients from digested feed and cause very little damage.
Coccidia
Affects all species of animals and each species have their own strain. Referred to as protozoan parasite and are always present in a goat's environment.
 


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Section II. Multiple Choice

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on your choice in the pull-down menu

1. Parasitism, and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in particular, is arguably the most serious constraint affecting small ruminant production world-wide.
2. Economic losses due to parasites within the goat herd are expensive to the producer. Economic losses are caused by many factors. Which of the statements below would you consider to be economic losses?
3. When goats are managed as browsers exposure to parasites is increased and subsequently the effect is more severe.
4. Which one of the following is considered to be the most serious parasite affecting goats?
5. Which of the following are considered to be symptoms that goats have when affected by the Barberpole worm?
6. Well-fed animals do not withstand parasite infection any better than animals on an inadequate diet.
7. A fecal egg count is a method of evaluating the number of parasite eggs excreted per gram of feces.
8. Anemia can be roughly evaluated by observing the color of mucous membranes which are area where there are a lot of capillaries. Which one of the observation points listed below is not a place to observe for anemia signs?
9. Dewormers are formulated in many different ways. From the list below which formulations are acceptable?
10. Resistance to dewormers has developed primarily because dewormers have been overused and rotated too frequently and many times under-dosing occurs.
11. Cattle and goats do not harbor the same parasites. Cattle and goats can be grazed together where each consumes the parasites of the other which, in turn, reduces available infective larvae for the preferred host species.

Section III. Multiple Selection

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on your choices

1. Which of the following are not considered to be signs of a parasitized animal?

Rough hair coat
Diarrhea
Bright hair coat
Depression
Feed gain
Weight loss
Bottle jaw
Anorexia (off feed)
Clear bright eyes


2. Below are statements related to administration of dewormers. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Oral administration of dewormers is preferred.
Delivery over the base of the tongue ensures that the dose is delivered to the rumen where it will be mixed with the ingesta and then distributed evenly throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
Oral administration in a feed product assures that all goats get an equal amount of the dewormer.
Injectable products are recommended for use with goats.
If used, injectable dewormers should be given subcutaneously.
The best injection site is the exposed skin under the front legs.
Pour-on products are recommended for use with goats.


3. Below are statements regarding dewormers. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Dewormers are chemicals (drugs) that have been evaluated and tested for use in animals to remove worm parasites.
Pharmaceutical companies will not market a dewormer unless it is 80% effective.
Resistance to dewormers has been developed by many worm species.
All FDA approved dewormers for any animal can be used with goats.
"Extra-label" use means using a product other than for which it is approved.
For a veterinarian to use a dewormer "extra-label" there has to be a valid veterinarian-client relationship.


4. Below are statements related to smart use of dewormers. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

It would be prudent to establish which dewormers are effective against a worm population.
The least important aspect of using dewormers is to maximize their effectiveness.
The producer should treat all animals when a few show signs of worm infestation.
Treating all animals when few show signs of infestation at regular intervals leads to dewormer resistance.
Once the most effective dewormer has been selected, using it along with others needs to be done "smartly".
If one feels the need to rotate dewormers, do so at yearly intervals and rotate between classes of dewormers.
A producer should deworm and immediately move the goats to a new pasture.


5. Below are statements related to pasture rotation. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

The concept of pasture rotation has been proven to reduce parasite infestation in the goat herd.
The main reason to use pasture rotation is not for parasite control but to provide the most nutritious forage for growth and development.
It appears that a 30 day period is the ideal number of days to rotate the goats to a new pasture.
Rotation schemes of 2-3 months have been shown to have some effect on reducing pasture infectivity in tropical and subtropical environments.
Some success at reducing infectivity can be achieved by cutting pasture for hay between grazing periods.


6. Below are statements related to genetic improvement with goats. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

There is little evidence that part of the variation in host resistance to worm infection is under genetic control in goats and sheep.
Resistance is most likely based on inheritance of genes which play a primary role in expression of host immunity.
Based on survival of the fittest management conditions, several goat and sheep breeds are known to be relatively resistant to infection.
Using resistant breeds exclusively or in crossbreeding programs would certainly lead to improved resistance to worm infection.
Animals become less resistant to infection with age as their immune systems become more competent to combat infection.
It appears that the majority of the worm population resides in a minority of the animal population.
It would make sense to encourage culling practices (based on fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA) where the minority of "parasitized" animals were eliminated, thus retaining more resistant stock.
Selection for resistance and/or selection against susceptibility using a measurement such as fecal egg counts has been moderately successful.


7. Of the dewormers that have been approved for use by FDA which are specifically approved for use with goats?

Levasol and Tramisol, oral drench
Valbazen oral drench
Ivomec for sheep oral drench
Safeguard/Panacur oral drench
Rumatel feed additive


8. Below are statements related to integrated approaches for parasite control. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

The control of worms seldom relies on grazing management and/or dewormer treatment.
The evolution of dewormer resistance in worm populations is recognized globally and threatens the success of drug treatment programs within the United States.
A comprehensive study in the US on prevalence of dewormers resistance in goats, found 90% of all farms had resistance to 2 or 3 drug classes and 30% of farms had worms resistant to all 3 drug classes.
The one dewormer that may still remain effective in some circumstances is Cydectin.


9. Below are statements regarding blood packed cell volume (PCV). Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Nematode parasites cannot affect an animals' ability to maintain normal red blood cell count.
The PCV is the percent of blood that is red blood cells and a normal percentage is usually above 30%.
When PCV drops below 15%, symptoms of anemia usually start to appear.
PCV values have been used to support other response criteria, and are not necessarily used as a "stand-by-itself" diagnostic tool.
PCV is determined by centrifuging blood in a capillary tube (similar in size to a ball point pen refill) which packs the cells and percent is measured.
All nematode parasite infections can result in chronic anemia where red blood cells are not being made fast enough to keep up with demand.


10. Below is a list of dewormers. Some of the dewormer(s) are approved for goats and some are Extra-label products. Check the APPROVED dewormer(s); leaving the EXTRA-LABEL dewormer(s) unchecked.

Safeguard/Panacur
Cydectin
Valbazen
Rumatel
Ivomec for sheep
Levasol
Tramisol


11. There are three general classes of dewormers. They are listed below. Match the class of dewormer to the brand name. Place the correct numbers in the blank.
1. Benzimidazoles
2. Imidazothiazoles
3. Macrolides

Levasol
Ivomec
Safeguard, Panacur
Tramisol
Rumatel
Cydectin
Valbazen


12. Below are statements that represent the different stages of the life cycle of parasites. In the blank in front of each statement place a number from 1 to 6 with one being the starting point of the life cycle and 6 being the ending point of the life cycle where the cycle starts over. Please note that 1 has already been selected with "Adult nematodes in the digestive tract".

Host ingests infective larvae
Eggs are laid in digestive tract
Eggs hatch, and larvae develop to infective 3rd stage in soil and feces
Adult nematodes in the digestive tract
Eggs in feces
Larvae mature to adult stage