Nutrition Pre/Post Test


Section I. Matching

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on an item in either Column A or B,
  2. click on your answer in the other column,
  3. the matched pair will be automatically entered in the Preview Area at the bottom of the table,
  4. in the Preview Area:
  5. if at any point you are NOT satisfied with a matched pair in the Matched Pairs Area, simply click on the "Remove matched pair" button next to the matched pair and the matched pair will be removed from the Matched pairs Area.
  6. continue until all matched pairs have been added to the Matched Pairs Area,
  7. continue to next section.

Column AColumn B

Match the terms below to the correct definition.
Acidosis
Major structural carbohydrate in plants that is poorly digested by nonruminant animals.
Body Condition Score
An infectious intestinal disease caused by protozoan organisms which causes diarrhea and damage to the lining of the intestine.
Carbohydrates
Consequences of acidosis which results in a rapid growth of the animals hoof.
Cellulose
Forage that is allowed to accumulate for grazing at a later time.
Coccidiosis
An inorganic group of nutrients including elements such as calcium, phosphorus and copper.
Concentrates
Chemical compounds having specific functions in the nutritive support of animal life.
Crude fiber
Numerical score that describes the amount of muscle and fat cover on an animal.
Enterotoxemia
Disease caused by feeding too much grain or increasing the level of grain in the diet too rapidly.
Fiber
Major source of energy found in most feedstuffs.
Forage
A neurological disease of goats caused by thiamine deficiency.
Founder
The edible part of the plant that provides fed for grazing animals.
Mineral
The study of nutrients and nutritional requirements for differing levels of production and how to provide such nutrients.
Nutrient
A feed with less than 20% crude fiber and usually more than 60% TDN.
Nutrient requirement
A component of feed that consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.
Polioencephalomalacia, PEM or polio
Level of specific nutrients required to keep an animal healthy and productive.
Stockpiled forage
A disease caused by an overgrowth of bacteria in the intestine usually due to fermentation of a large quantity of starch with production of endotoxin.
Supplement
An outdated method of estimating fiber content of a feedstuff through extraction with acid and alkaline solutions.
TDN
Total digestible nutrients, a measure of digested energy.
Vitamins
Specific organic substances required for various metabolic functions.
Nutrition
Feed designed to cover the nutrient deficiencies of the animal's main diet.

Match the terms below to the correct statement.
Protein
Essential nutrient for all animals.
Carbohydrates
Provide the majority of energy to goats.
Fat
Called lipids and are high in energy providing more than twice the energy of carbohydrates on a weight basis.
Minerals
Composed of building blocks of amino acid for which the body uses to produce all of the different proteins required for growth, production and maintenance.
Water
Function as co-factors in many metabolic processes.
Vitamins
Inorganic nutrients providing many functions within the body related to structural components and nerve functioning.

Match the vitamins listed below to the correct function.
Vitamin K
Required by animals and functions in the clotting of blood.
Vitamin A
Necessary for calcium absorption and metabolism by the body.
Vitamin D
Functions as an antioxidant in conjunction with the mineral selenium.
Vitamin E
Necessary for normal epithelium (skin) development and vision.

Match the minerals below to the function that each plays with goat nutrition.
Calcium
Important for bone formation, reproduction and enzyme functioning.
Phosphorus
Component of thyroid hormones.
Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride
Protects cell membranes from oxidation.
Copper
Serves as a biological function as a component of Vitamin B 12.
Selenium
Essential for formation of red blood cells, hair pigmentation, connective tissues and enzymes.
Zinc
A component of hemoglobin required for oxygen transport.
Magnesium
Required by the immune system for normal skin growth and essential for male reproduction.
Iron
Required for normal skeletal development and nervous and muscular system functions as well as enzyme systems.
Cobalt
Component of sulfur-containing amino acids, and is important in protein synthesis for milk and hair production, enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin and connective tissue.
Sulphur
Biological function is for bone development and necessary for muscle contraction, nerve conduction and blood clotting.
Manganese
Assists with skeletal structural functions, essential in energy metabolism, acid-base balance and is a constituent of enzymes and genetic material.
Iodine
Function as electrolytes in the body and essential in transmission of nerve impulses.

Match the diseases below to the description/symptoms of the disease.
Acidosis
Metabolic disease usually caused by animals being too fat prior to kidding and then animals are subjected to the disease also.
Founder
Caused by bacteria in the intestine that grow rapidly and produce an endotoxin in response to high levels of starch (grain) in the diet.
Enterotoxaemia
Associated with the production of high levels of lactic acid in the rumen from a large supply of starch that the animal consumed.
Pregnancy toxemia/ketosis
Refers to problems that occur in the feet of the animal.
Polioencephalomalacia
Neurological disease caused by thiamine deficiency.
Urinary calculi
Caused by the consumption of high levels of whole grain resulting in improper dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio.
 


Preview Area




Matched Pairs Area


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.

Section II. Multiple Choice

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on your choice in the pull-down menu

1. Goats have bacteria in the rumen that can detoxify antinutritional factors such as tannins.
2. Fiber in the goats diet is characterized as:
3. The major source of minerals for goats is:
4. The most important criteria in choosing a mineral supplement is the correct levels of:
5. The purpose of integrating salt within a mineral mix is to:
6. The approximate yearly cost of minerals for a 150 pound goat is:
7. Is the following statement an acceptable definition? Body Condition Scoring is a system of assigning a numerical score based upon the amount of muscle and fat covering the spine in the loin area and ribs and fat pad at the sternum.
8. Following is a statement related to applied nutrition. Applied nutrition involves determining the nutrient requirements of animals and amounts of feedstuffs to provide the required nutrients in the proper amounts.
9. Creep feeding is a method of providing feed for kids only.

Section III. Multiple Selection

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on your choices

1. Below are statements related to diagnosing mineral deficiencies and toxicities. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Blood tests are adequate for all minerals
Deficiency or toxicity symptoms usually provide initial indications of mineral status
Hair analysis has been used for zinc and selenium but in general is a poor diagnostic test
Liver is a good tissue to test for iron and copper deficiency
Blood tests are adequate for minerals such as magnesium, calcium and phosphorus


2. Below are statements related to the effect of kidding season on nutritional requirements. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Nutrient requirements for does change dramatically with stage of production
Kidding should be planned during the year that pasture is rapidly growing
Cool season grasses usually produce more forage per acre than warm season grasses
Rapidly growing pasture is low in protein and energy
Nutritional requirements increase dramatically during the last six weeks of the gestation period


3. Below are statements concerning colostrum. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Hand milk feeding of commercial meat goats is usually not economical
Kids cannot be raised on cow milk replacers
Kids should receive first colostrum within 12 hours of birth
Colostrum contains antibodies that strengthen the immune system


4. Below are statements concerning ration formulation. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Rations should be balanced for protein, energy, calcium and phosphorus
Vitamin premix should be used to provide at least vitamin A and E
Sufficient fiber should be included in the diet to prevent acidosis
Bucks and wethers fed high levels of concentrate may be at risk of developing urinary calculi


5. Below are statements concerning feeding systems. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Avoid feeding moldy feed or feed contaminated with urine or feces
Mineral mixes should be keep dry and replenished at 4 week intervals to avoid caking
Feeders should be able to be cleaned and designed whereby goats cannot get step in or urinate or defacate in the feeder
If ground conditions are dry and you are feeding whole corn or range cubes the feed can be placed on the ground
Hay should be fed on the ground


6. Below is a list of True or False questions. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

BCS stands for Body Condition Score
Carbohydrates are the major energy source in most feed stuffs
Polioencephalomalacia is caused by an iodine deficiency
There are nine (9) classes of nutrients
Goats have a four-compartment stomach
Proper nutrition is essential for the health and productivity of all animals and is the basis of successful production systems
In ruminants, feed first undergoes microbial digestion in the omasum
The greatest asset of goats is the ability to utilize woody plants and weeds not typically consumed by other species of animals
Energy is considered a nutrient
Water cleanliness is especially important for bucks on high grain diets
Carbohydrates are classified in groups called simple and complex
Protein is required in the diet for accumulation of new body mass (growth) and for replacing protein lost by normal wear and tear
Generally, goats do not need to be supplemented with vitamin K
Inorganic nutrients are called minerals
Selenium is deficient in many areas because of low soil levels
Most forage is high in phosphorus
Rapidly growing pasture is high in protein and energy


7. Below are statments regarding Feeding Bucks. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Mature bucks can obtain most of their nutrients from pasture
Body condition should be evaluated 6 months before the breeding season
Whole shelled corn or sweet feed at 0.25 to 0.5% of body weight will be adequate
Yearlings and 2 year old bucks have greater nutrient requirements since they are still growing
Bucks need to have a BCS greater than 4.0 before the breeding season starts
Feeding bucks high levels of grain over a long period of time can cause the buck to develop urinary calculi


8. Below are statements regarding Feeding Replacement Bucks and Does. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Bucklings must gain more weight than doelings to reach puberty
Replacement bucks and does must gain sufficient weight from weaning to breeding to be adequately large and sexually mature
Does will not gain sufficient weight on moderate quality forage
To enhance doelings weight gain, a grain supplement of whole shelled corn at 0.5 to 1% of body weight can be fed
Feeding excessive grain to does causes an overly fat condition


9. Below are statements regarding Feeding Does throughout Their Life Cycle. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Does have four production periods: non-pregnant, pregnant, late gestation and lactating
Does that are open or in early stage of pregnancy (< 95 days) have a high nutrient requirement
The management goal for the open doe is to gain a little weight and to be in good condition for breeding
Medium quality pasture in late summer or medium quality hay is sufficient to prepare for breeding and the early stages of pregnancy


10. Below are statements regarding Winter Feeding of Does. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Early to mid-winter is a time when does should be in early pregnancy
The goal of a winter feeding program is to economically provide the necessary nutrients to maintain reasonable body condition, lose no weight and keep them warm
Commonly utilized feed supplements are cracked corn, 41% protein cubes and a high protein percent sweet feed
Stockpiled forage is forage that is cut and baled
Animals harvest stockpiled forage by grazing
Native range and Bermudagrass should not be stockpiled
Fescue in some states is a good stockpiled grass


11. Below is a True or False question concerning Feeding Does in Late Gestation. Check if it is a TRUE statement.

Energy requirements reduce dramatically in late pregnancy


12. Below are statements regarding Feeding the Lactating Doe. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

A lactating doe has a very high nutrient requirement
Kids are usually weaned at 24 weeks of age
Milk production of the doe begins to decrease after the sixth week of lactation
Nutrient requirements decline as stage of lactation advances
Kids may be creep fed to increase growth rate


13. Vitamins are classified as water and fat soluble. Choose if the vitamins below are fat soluble or water soluble.

Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Vitamin K


14. Minerals are classified as macromineral and micromineral. Choose if the mineral is macromineral or micromineral.

Calcium
Phosphorus
Sodium
Copper
Selenium
Zinc
Magnesium
Iron
Potassium
Cobalt
Sulphur
Manganese
Chloride
Iodine