Reproductive Technologies Pre/Post Test


Section I. Matching

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on an item in either Column A or B,
  2. click on your answer in the other column,
  3. the matched pair will be automatically entered in the Preview Area at the bottom of the table,
  4. in the Preview Area:
  5. if at any point you are NOT satisfied with a matched pair in the Matched Pairs Area, simply click on the "Remove matched pair" button next to the matched pair and the matched pair will be removed from the Matched pairs Area.
  6. continue until all matched pairs have been added to the Matched Pairs Area,
  7. continue to next section.

Column AColumn B
Accessory sperm
Sterile.
Embryo transfer
The narrow caudal end of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
Acrosome
Collection of fertilized ova from one female before they become implanted and transfer to another female to complete the gestation.
Embryo
Spermatozoa who are supplementary to each other for the purpose of successful ovum fertilization.
Anesthesia/anesthetic
No longer an ovum or zygote; the cleaved, fertilized ovum in early stages of development prior to becoming a fetus.
Corpa Lutea/Corpus Luteum
The caplike structure covering the anterior portion of the head of a spermatozoon; contains enzymes necessary for the penetration of the ovum.
Anterior
Fleshy masses by which the placenta attaches to the uterine wall.
Cleavage
A substance that produces physical insensibility to pain or other sensation.
Aseptic
The early successive splitting of a fertilized ovum into smaller cells.
Cervix
Situated more toward the end or tail.
Artificial insemination
The implanting of live spermatozoa into the genital tract of the female.
Caudal
Situated at or directed toward the front; opposite of posterior.
Capacitation
The process by which spermatozoa become capable of penetrating and ultimately fertilizing an ovum.
Caruncles
A progesterone secreting yellow mass formed from the wall of an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum.
Estrus
The fluid portion of the blood.
Fertility
Fatty acid which affects the action of certain hormones, causes the regress of the corpus luteum, stimulates uterine contraction and ultimately is a major contributor to fetal abortion.
Fertilization
The mouth or opening of the cervix.
Follicle
Performed or occurring after death.
Fornix
The period before puberty.
Gestation
The sex glands of the female where the ova are formed.
Implantation
Hormone secreted by the corpus luteum which fosters uterine preparation for pregnancy, placental growth and ultimately is required to sustain pregnancy.
Intra Uterine
The discharge of the ovum from the ovary.
Laparoscope
An egg; the female reproductive cell.
Lumen
Passage through which the ova leave the maternal body.
Opaque
Directed toward or situated at the back.
Hormone
Within the uterus.
Morphology
Instrument used for the visual inspection of the female reproductive organs and sex glands.
Motility
The attachment and embedding of the fertilized ovum within the uterus.
Os
From the time of fertilization of the ovum until birth.
Ova/Ovum
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception.
Ovary
Time during the reproductive cycle of the female when she displays interest in mating.
Oviduct
Neither solid in color nor translucent or transparent.
Ovulation
The anatomical structure, such as that of the spermatozoon.
Plasma
Ability to move spontaneously; used to predict the probable fertility of the ejaculate, subjective estimates based on the degree of wave motion observed under the microscope.
Posterior
The ovum and its encasing cells.
Postmortem
The overshoot; the annular recess around the outside of the cervix.
Prepubescent
The cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ.
Progesterone
Chemical transmitter substance produced by cells of the body and transported by the bloodstream to the cells and organs on which it has a specific regulatory effect.
Prostaglandin
When the spermatozoa unite or fuse with the ovum creating a zygote.
Puberty
The hollow muscular organ of the female where fertilized ova become embedded and are nourished during gestation.
Rut
The fertilized ovum until first cleavage, prior to becoming an embryo.
Spermatogenesis
The time of which the capability of sexual reproduction is attained.
Spermatozoa/Spermatozoon
One of the pair of tubular extensions from the uterine body.
Superovulation
To pass or move over, along, or through.
Serum
Sticky or gummy.
Testes/Testicle/Testis
The transparent, secreted layer surrounding the ovum.
Traverse
The canal in the female from the external genitalia (vulva) to the cervix.
Uterine horn
An imaging technique in which deep structures of the body are visualized by recording the reflections of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissue.
Uterus
The period of increased sexual and testicular activity, especially spermatogenesis, in the male.
Ultrasonography
The development of mature spermatozoa.
Vagina
A semen cell; the male reproductive cell.
Vaginal speculum
Production of more than one ovum at ovulation.
Vestibule
The clear portion of the blood plasma which remains after the solid elements have been separated out by clotting.
Viable
The egg shaped sex gland, normally situated in the scrotum of the male which produce spermatozoa.
Viscous
An instrument for opening the vaginal cavity to permit visual inspection.
Zona Pellucida
A space or cavity at the entrance to another structure.
Zygote
To maintain an independent existence.

AI equipment
Carrying case
Simple guide providing the technician with basic, introductory knowledge of AI concepts and techniques.
Kit warmer
Compact metal or plastic case for the safe and clean storage of AI equipment.
Artificial insemination gun
Device designed for the proper control of the semen straw's thawing process.
AI gun sheaths
A goat length (usually 12 inch) device used for the depositing of semen via a .25 or .5 cc straw.
AI light
Disposable, sterile, individually wrapped outer plastic shells which fit over the gun providing a secure seat for the straw.
Vaginal speculum
Used for the lubrication of the vaginal speculum prior to its insertion.
Speculum brush
Compact light source, which should attach securely to the vaginal speculum.
Straw cutter
For proper seating in the AI gun sheath, this device delivers the critical square cut to the end of the semen straw.
Non-spermicidal, sterile lubricant
Used in conjunction with a light source enables the clear view of the cervical os.
Semen thaw unit
A soft brush, sized to provide thorough cleaning of the vaginal speculum.
Instruction booklet
Designed to assist in the maintenance of a breeding diary and the recording of pertinent data for each performed AI procedure.
Insemination reports
Pre-warms all AI equipment prior to its use.
 


Preview Area




Matched Pairs Area


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Section II. Multiple Choice

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on your choice in the pull-down menu

1. What month of the year is the buck's semen of optimum quality?
2. Most processors within the United States package semen in straws containing ____cc's of semen.
3. What is the temperature contained within the liquid nitrogen tank?
4. During the freezing of semen some viability loss does occur. Select the correct response from the list below:
5. What is the acceptable water bath temperature for thawing semen?
6. Is the following statement a true or false definition for the meaning of seasonally polyestrous. Shows evidence of the desire to bred when day length grows shorter; in the late summer, fall and winter months
7. The average estrous cycle length of a doe is
8. How many hours does a doe normally remain in estrus?

Section III. Multiple Selection

Directions

In this section, you will:

  1. click on your choices

1. Below are statements regarding the estrus induction. Select the statements from the list below that can be used by a producer to bring a doe into estrus.

Light therapy for inducing off-season estrus
Utilizing the buck effect for the induction of estrus
Progestagen treatments
MGA feed supplement
Prostaglandin treatment


2. Which of the statements below are measures used for evaluating a buck's semen?

Viability (live vs. dead)
Motility (movement)
Morphology (normal vs. abnormal cell structure)


3. Processors of semen within the United States place certain labeling on the semen straws. From the list below select the most appropriate labeling.

Buck's permanent identification
Donor name
Registration number
Processing company identification
Date of collection
Animal index number assigned by the individual processing company
Number of collections from same buck


4. Following a cell count and quality analysis of semen, it undergoes a dilution process. Which of the following products may be added to the semen during the dilution process?

Milk
Water
Egg yolk
Egg white
Sugars
Antibiotics
Buffers


5. Determining pregnancy can be accomplished in many ways. Select acceptable ways from the list below:

Bumping
Vulva examination
Cervical examination
Ultrasonography
Blood sampling/hormone assay


6. Sensory stimulus traditionally aids in the kick-start of hormonal activity in the doe. Which of the following would you consider to be sensory stimulus?

Change in daylight hours
Buck's odorous smell when in rut
The exuberant vocal expressions of the buck


7. Below are statements related to light therapy for inducing off-season estrus. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Light therapy is a very cost effective, common practice proven useful for commercial goat dairies as a means of bringing a large number of does into estrus.
Light therapy works effectively for a commercial meat goat operation.
Light therapy is accomplished by transitioning the doe's photoperiod in a controlled environment.
Does are housed in a building with no outside light but with adequate ventilation and regular cleaning to sustain their good health.
When initiating the program the does could be exposed to perhaps 10 hours of light per day.
Therapy should begin between the months of December through February depending on the desired date of freshening of the participants.
Photo stimulation should be provided using incandescent light intensity equal to 13-15 foot candles, for a period of 18-22 hours per day over a 45-60 day duration.
Following the 45-60 day period of light stimulus, the does should be exposed to a successive lessening of length in daily photoperiods.
Once the bucks are introduced, fertile estrus can be expected 10-20 days later.


8. Below are statements related to progestagen treatments. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Progestagen treatment is most commonly accomplished with the use of some type of implant, designed for the controlled breeding of goats.
Progesterone implants are the most commonly used device, and fool the doe's system into thinking it is pregnant, preventing any hormonal activity from occurring that would induce a state of estrus.
Once removed, the decrease of progesterone in the doe's system stimulates the production of a variety of hormones, and behavioral estrus can be expected within 48 to 60 hours.
Progesterone implants are approved for use in goats within the United States.
Syncro-Mate B is an implant labeled for goats.
A Veramix vaginal sponge deposited into the vaginal cavity of the doe is a very easy means for the goat producer to maintain progesterone levels in the doe.
One advantage of the vaginal sponge is the porous material of which it is constructed.
Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release (CIDR) devices are another progesterone delivering, intravaginal vehicle and a favorite method for most ET programs.
A CIDR designed for goat use, when used with full-sized goats and according to manufacturer's instruction, can be used both safely and effectively with no vaginal trauma or other deleterious results.


9. Below are statements related to prostaglandin treatment. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

It is good to note that protocols as labeled and described for cattle use have proven reliable for goats when using a form of prostaglandin.
Time of year is important to the producer because prostaglandin is only effective if a corpus luteum is present on the doe's ovary.
If no corpus luteum exists, the prostaglandin injection is void of any stimulation to estrus.
Prostaglandin in any dosage, could initiate a fetal abortion in a pregnant animal.


10. Below are statements related to artificial insemination. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Artificial insemination is a learned technique, that when performed with skill, can provide a good level of success.
Classes that offer hands-on training using live animals accompanied by in-depth lecture offer the maximum benefit to the beginning AI technician.
Every doe is a good AI candidate.
The vulva is the door to the vaginal cavity and consists of two vertical lips, or labia, located just below the anus.
The vagina is a smooth-walled, soft, collapsed cavity.
The vagina acts as the connecting tunnel between the vulva and the cervix.
The vagina is the area where the buck would deposit semen during natural service.
The os is the opening to the cervix which is approximately one and one-half inches in length and is the gateway to the uterus.
The rings are the cervical folds of the cervix.
There are ten cervical folds of the cervix.


11. Below are statements considered the three primary factors for a successful artificial insemination program. Check the true TRUE statement(s); leaving the two FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

The use of live/viable fresh cooled or frozen semen
The nutrition level of the animal
The appropriate timing of insemination in relation to estrus and ovulation
The proper deposition of semen in the doe
The skills of the technician


12. Below are statements related to proper semen deposition in the doe's reproductive tract. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Knowing and determining the proper time to AI the doe is not a critical factor that the producer needs to consider.
Any deposit of semen in the vestibule, anterior or fornix of the vagina is premature and incorrect.
Entering the uterus increases the opportunity for the potential introduction of foreign microorganisms which could lead to infection.
Once the semen is properly deposited, it is believed that fresh semen can remain viable for over 24 hours in the doe's reproductive tract.
Ovulation occurs just before or shortly following the end of the doe's standing heat.


13. Below are statements related to laparoscopic/intra-uterine artificial insemination. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Must be performed by a licensed and trained veterinarian.
Despite its high cost of application it still provides advantages to the producer.
The doe should be removed from water and feed 24-36 hours before the procedure.
The semen is surgically placed in the uterine lumen.


14. Below are statements related to liquid nitrogen semen storage tanks. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Semen tanks only come in one design.
The working parts are a lid, Styrofoam cork, canisters, the inner chamber that holds the liquid nitrogen and a spider to keep the canisters from moving all around.
The cork is generally 4-6 inches in length, with grooves down the sides to allow the canister hangers through.
If capped too tightly, the nitrogen gas would build pressure in the tank and cause it to eventually explode.
Liquid nitrogen is 100 degrees Fahrenheit and a hazardous material.
A tank that holds 540 straws only has the capacity to hold 24 canes of inventory.
Each cane holds three goblets.
Each goblet holds five .5cc straws.
Good quality, new liquid nitrogen storage tanks can vary in cost from about $650.00 to upwards of $1,000.00 depending on the make and model.
When you are pulling straws for insemination, your attention should be on the inventory going back into the tank, not the straw you intend to thaw.
It is better to pull the canister up three times for three seconds, than one time for nine seconds.


15. Below are statements related to superovulation and embryo transfer. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

Embryo transfer is an invasive procedure performed by a licensed and trained veterinarian.
Embryo transfer is widely used by the showman, hobbyist and commercial producer in the meat goat industry.
Embryo transfer programs have few limitations.
Embryo transfer can be performed successfully both in and out of the normal breeding season.
For a successful embryo transfer program the doe should be between the ages of 7 to 10.
For a successful embryo transfer program the doe should have a body condition score of 3 to 3.5.
A great deterrent of embryo transfer to some producers is the requirement for many recipient does.
A suitable recipient doe for an embryo transfer program is one who has proven her reproductive abilities.
Prior to transfer of the embryo, each of the recipient does must be synchronized to be of the same timing in their estrous cycle as the donor doe.
Embryo donor does are predominantly does of high value to the herdsman.
Acceptable resulting ovulation rates from superovulation range from 10 to 25 ova produced.


16. Below are statements related to embryo flushing and embryo transfer. Check the TRUE statement(s); leaving the FALSE statement(s) unchecked.

The harvest of the donor doe's resulting embryos (fertilized ova) traditionally involves a licensed veterinarian and is performed 5-6 days following applied fertilization methods.
The disadvantage of such an invasive procedure on concurrent occasions is the likelihood of resulting adhesions that may interfere with subsequent collections.
Vaginal flushing/trans-cervical embryo collection methods are in their infancy with regard to goats.
The practice of transferring harvested embryos to recipient does is again an invasive technique, surgically performed.
The recipient doe's stage of ovulation being as similar as possible to the donor doe's is believed to have the greatest influence on the success of the procedure.