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CURRENT RESEARCH PROGRAM OVERVIEW

Experiments Initiated in 2008

Experiments Initiated in 2009

Experiments Initiated in 2010

Experiments Initiated in 2011

Experiments Initiated in 2012

Title: Effects of length of pasture access on the grazing activity energy cost in Boer does during different stages of production

Experiment Number: ITL-08-01

Project Number: BIO11-001-005

Investigators: I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch., R. Puchala, T, Gipson, G. Detweiler, L. J. Dawson, K. Tesfai, T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of ‘night-locking’ or length of pasture access on MEa of Boer goats in different stages of production (i.e., pregnant, lactating, dry, breeding periods) during a 1-year period.
  • Develop a simple means of predicting MEa of goats based on factors relatively easily estimable by goat producers.

 

Title: Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats

Experiment Number: LW-08-03

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. Spicer, D. Bannerman, B. Bah, and E. Vasquez

Objectives:

  • Assess prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in Alpine and Nubian goats during an entire lactation.

 

Title: Development of a method to screen for cell mediated immune response to Coxiella burnetii in goats

Experiment Number: LD-08-04

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: L. J. Dawson, J. Ritchey, and E. Shaw

Objectives:

  • Identify goats which have previously been exposed to C. Burnetii and express a cell-mediated immune response to C. Burnetii antigen which is detectable by digital palpation
  • Determine whether an in vitro assay can be use dto screen goats for previous exposure to C. Burnetii by measuring specific inducible T-cell response to C. Burnetii antigen

 

Title: Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration in goats

Experiment Number: LD-08-05

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: K. Simpson, C. Baumwart, L. J. Dawson, T. A. Gipson, J. Shumacher, T. Lehenbauer, A. L. Goetsch, and J. Hayes

Objectives:

  • Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration. The three methods include castration with a Henderson tool, emasculation, and banding. Evaluation of the patients after surgery will include pack cell volume, total protein, feed intake daily, weekly weight gain and feed efficiency.

 

Title: Effects of gender and age on the maintenance energy requirement of Boer goats

Experiment Number: ITL-08-06

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, K. Tesfai, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of gender and age of Boer goats on a) fasting heat production, b) maintenance energy requirement, c) efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance, and d) efficiency of energy utilization for growth
  • Determine the relationship between heart rate and heat production measured in growing Boer goats with ad libitum consumption and when fed near maintenance and fasted

 

Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment

Experiment Number: AG-08-07

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, J. Hayes, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Develop and evaluate an accurate and repeatable method of evaluating methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment

 

Title: Use of mimosa as a protein bank for lactating meat goats

Experiment Number: AG-08-08

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, Z. Wang, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of once or twice weekly ‘protein bank’ grazing of pastures with mimosa trees on performance of meat goat does and suckling twin kids

 

Title: Alternative dewormers for goats

Experiment Number: SH-08-09

Project Number: LU-4-19336

Investigators: S. P. Hart and Z. Wang

Objectives:

  • Investigate the efficacy of two levels of copper sulfate in deworming goats
  • Investigate the anthelmintic potential of Artimesia ludovisciana
  • Investigate the efficacy of black pepper and walnut hull extract on deworming goats

 

Title: Accuracy and precision of fixes and calculated distances of GPS animal collars

Experiment Number: TG-09-01

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU05

Investigators: T. A. Gipson, I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, and G. D. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • Evaluate the accuracy and precision of post-differentially corrected and uncorrected stationary GPS collar fixes
  • Examine the effect of post-differential correction versus raw fix data on distance traveled on mobile GPS collars

 

Title: An investigation on CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis

Experiment Number: LW-09-02

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, R. Shangguan, L. Spicer, and D. Bannerman

Objectives:

  • Test the impact of major types of CNS bacteria species causing intra-mammary infection (Staphylococcus epidermidis) on the inflammatory response in milk and blood
  • Investigate changes in the plasmin system and SCC of milk caused by subclinical mastitis to study the mechanism by which CNS bacteria affect caseinolysis

 

Title: An investigation on CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis

Experiment Number: LW-09-03

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, R. Shangguan, L. Spicer, and D. Bannerman

Objectives:

  • Assess effects of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats on milk production, composition, and caseinolysis, milk coagulation properties, and curd yield and microstructure profiles

 

Title: Effects of CNS bacteria induced subclinical mastitis on the gene profile of dairy goats and casein fractions and the plasmin system of goat milk

Experiment Number: RS-09-04

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: R. Shangguan, L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis caused by major types of CNS bacteria species (S. Epidermidis, S. Simulans, S. Caprae, and S. Chromogenes) on the plasmin system, casein fractions, the mechanism by which CNS affects caseinolysis, and gene profiles in Alpine and Nubian dairy goats

 

Title: Effects of goat breed on energy expenditure during and after a low nutritional plane

Experiment Number: AH-09-05

Project Number: BIO12-001-016

Investigators: A. Helal, R. Puchala, G. D. Detweiler, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine how nutrient restriction impacts energy expenditure (EE) and the maintenance energy requjirement MEm ) with common goat breeds of the USA
  • Determine how adequate nutrient intake following nutrient restriction affects EE and MEm with common goat breeds of the USA
  • Use data from specific objectives 1 and 2 to develop a method of predicting the impact of low nutritional planes on MEm

 

Title: Selection for residual feed intake in young Boer bucks - phase 1

Experiment Number: WH-09-06

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: W. Hu, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utiliation without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

Title: Effects of garlic on performance of goats infected with nematodes

Experiment Number: ZW-09-07

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, L. J. Dawson, S. Hart, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of garlic on performance and fecundity of Haemonchus contortus in the gastrointestinal tract of goat does and their suckling kids

 

Title: Effects of goat breed, diet, and age on skin chemical composition and the mechanical properties of resulting leather

Experiment Number: RM-09-08

Project Number: OKLXMERKEL2008

Investigators: R. C. Merkel, A. L. Goetsch, and T. A. Gipson

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of goat breed (Boer vs Spanish), diet (high and low nutritive plane), and age on skin chemical composition and the mechanical properties of resulting leather

 

Title: Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration in goats

Experiment Number: LD-09-09

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: K. Simpson, C. Baumwart, L. J. Dawson, T. A. Gipson, J. Shumacher, T. Lehenbauer, A. L. Goetsch, and J. Hayes

Objectives:

  • Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration. The three methods include castration with a Henderson tool, emasculation, and banding. Evaluation of the patients after surgery will include pack cell volume, total protein, feed intake daily, weekly weight gain and feed efficiency.

 

Title: Observations of effects of Carolina horsenettle on performance and immunity in goats infected with nematode parasites

Experiment Number: ZW-09-10

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of S. Carolinense on body weight change, immune responses (measured by concentrations of antibodies IgA, IgM, and IgG), and internal parasite load (measured by fecal egg count)

 

Title: Management of lactating Alpine goats to minimize internal parasitism and the activity energy cost

Experiment Number: AK-09-11

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. Keli, A. L. Goetsch, Z. Wang, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, E. Loetz, J. Hayes, R. C. Merkel, G. D. Detweiler, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of different pasture access schemes conceivably impacting ingestion of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and the activity energy cost on production and behavior of Alpine dairy goats

 

Title: Effects of method of processing broiler litter on feed intake and performance by meat goat doelings

Experiment Number: AG-09-12

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, J. Hayes, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Compare feed intake, growth rate, and efficiency of feed utilization of meat goat doelings consuming diets with deep-stacked versus ensiled broiler litter

 

Title: Observations of efficacy of anthelmintics in goats infected with nematode parasites

Experiment Number: ZW-10-02

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects on internal parasitism in Alpine dairy goats of treatment with Cydectin, Levasole, Valbazen, or different combinations of these products

 

Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment – experimental design (study number 2)

Experiment Number: AG-10-03

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Compare Latin square and completely randomized design approaches

 

Title: Testing efficacy of anthelmintic combinations

Experiment Number: SH-10-05

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and Z. Wang

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of various levels and combinations of commercially available anthelmintics and copper oxide wire capsules on internal parasitism in goats

 

Title: Comparison of nematode parasite-susceptibility and performance of Boer and Spanish goats supplemented with garlic

Experiment Number: ZW-10-06

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Compare performance and nematode-infection in Boer and Spanish goats and their suckling kids supplemented with garlic

 

Title: Boer goat selection for residual feed intake

Experiment Number: AM-10-07

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: A. Manley, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utilization without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

Title: Pregnancy rate following the use of chorionic gonadotropins and GnRH in an estrus/ovulation synchronization protocol for trans-cervical AI in cyclic goats

Experiment Number: EL-10-08

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: E. Loetz, L. J. Dawson, J. Hayes, and I. Portugal

Objectives:

  • Determine the influence of various gonadotropins and a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on ovulation and which of these hormones provides the best kidding rate
  • Establish the pattern of hormonal secretion during the use of different E/OS protocols

 

Title: Boer goat selection for residual feed intake

Experiment Number: AM-10-09

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: A. Manley, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utilization without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

Title: Characterization of cytokine gene expression in PBMC stimulation by H. contortus antigens

Experiment Number: RZ-10-10

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Characterize the profile of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by H. contortus and to demonstrate the effects of garlic expression of these genes

 

Title: Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on viability of H. contortus and immune responses of white blood cells of goats in vitro

Experiment Number: RZ-11-03

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine whether EGCG exerts a direct inhibitory effect on the viability of third-stage larvae of H. contortus and whether such effects shows a dose-dependent manner in in vitro conditions using larval viability inhibitory assay (LVIA)
  • Detect cytokine production by white blood cells stimulated by EGCG
  • Observe whether changes in cytokine expression affect viability of third-stage larvae of H. contortus

 

Title: Boer goat selection for residual feed intake

Experiment Number: AM-11-04

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: A. Manley, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utilization without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

Title: Investigation of CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis

Experiment Number: LPW-11-05

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis caused by major types of CNS bacteria species (S. Epidermidis, S. Simulans, S. Caprae, and S. Chromogenes) on the plasmin system, casein fractions, the mechanism by which CNS affects caseinolysis, and gene profiles in Alpine and Nubian dairy goats

 

Title: Investigation of CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis changes

Experiment Number: LPW-11-06

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Assess effects of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats on milk production, composition, and caseinolysis, milk coagulation properties, and curd yield and microstructure profiles

 

Title: Effects of CNS bacteria induced subclinical mastitis on gene profile of dairy goats and casein fractions and plasmin system of goat milk

Experiment Number: LPW-11-07

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis caused by major types of CNS bacteria species causing IMI (S. epidermidis, S. simulans, S. caprae, and S chromogenes) on plasmin system, casein graction, the mechanism by which CNS affects caseinolysis, and gene profiles in dairy goats of one research Alpine herd during a year-found lactation

 

Title: Effects of level of ginger and rumen undegraded protein supplementation on intake, metabolism, and ruminal conditions in yearling meat goat doelings

Experiment Number: IR6-11-08

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: A. Nauman, T. A. Shujaa, A. Mohammed, R. C. Merkel, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of dietary level of ginger and potential interactions with supplemental concentrate levels of rumen degraded and undegraded protein on intake, metabolism, and ruminal conditions in yearling meat goat doelings

 

Title: Effects of levels of rumen degraded and undegraded protein on intake, digestion, energy expenditure, and performance of yearling Spanish wethers

Experiment Number: IR3-11-09

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: A. Mohammed, T. A. Shujaa, A. Nauman, R. C. Merkel, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of dietary level of rumen degraded and undegraded protein on intake, metabolism, and performance of yearling Spanish wethers

 

Title: Effects of arginine, glutamine, and cysteine on cytokine genes expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with third-stage H. contortus antigen

Experiment Number: RZ-11-10

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Characterize the profile of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by H. contortus antigens, and demonstrate the effects of garlic on expressions of these genes

 

Title: Evaluation of the efficacy of colostrum replacer in dairy kids

Experiment Number: SH-11-12

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: S. Hart and L. J. Dawson

Objectives:

  • Determine the efficacy of a commercially available bovine colostrum replacement product (Land O Lakes Colostrum Replacement manufactured by The Saskatoon Colostrum Co, Ltd, Saskatoon Canada) in neonatal goat kids

 

Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment – preliminary adaptation, experimental design, and Latin square washout (study number 3)

Experiment Number: AG-11-13

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, T. Tsukahara, G. D. Detweiler, T. A. Gipson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine appropriateness of conditions preliminary adaptation procedures, experimental design [i.e., completely randomized design, Latin square, and repeated measures with a completely randomized design], and Latin square washout procedures) in a method to be developed for evaluating efficacy of electric fence additions to cattle barb wire fence for goat containment

 

Title: Use of mimosa as a protein bank for lactating meat goats

Experiment Number: AG-11-14

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, Z. Wang, L. J. Dawson, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of once or twice weekly ‘protein bank’ grazing of pastures with mimosa trees on performance of meat goat does and suckling twin kids

 

Title: Effects of arginine, glutamine, and cysteine on cytokine genes expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with third-stage H. contortus antigen

Experiment Number: RZ-11-15

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, E. Loetz, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine which mitogen (ConA, PHA, or LPS) is similar to H. contortus antigen in term of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from neonatal and adult Alpine goats
  • Investigate effects of arginine, glutamine, and cysteine on cytokine genes expression in PBMC stimulated by H. contortus antigen

 

Title: Investigation of anthelmintic properties of medicinal herbs in goats infected with nematode parasites

Experiment Number: RZ-11-16

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, D. Zhou, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine the anthelmintic efficacy of three medicinal herbs, Rheum palmatum L. (Da huang), Meliae cortex (ku lian pi), and Quisqualis indica L. (shi jun zi), in goats infected with Haemonchus contortus (estimated by FEC)

 

Title: Influence of trace mineral supplementation on goat reproductive performance following estrus/ovulation synchronization and different sites of semen placement

Experiment Number: EL-11-17

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: E. Loetz, L. Dawson, A. L. Goetsch, S. Hart, D. Arrocha, I. Portugal, J. Hayes, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Evaluate the influence of two levels of a commercially available trace mineral supplement (Multimin-901) on rates of fertilization, ovulation, conception, and pregnancy following natural service or traditional transcervical AI or RamGo-aided intracervical

 

Title: Optimum goat breeding time based on vaginal/cervical electrical resistance changes

Experiment Number: EL-11-18

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: E. Loetz, L. Dawson, D. Arrocha, I. Portugal, and J. Hayes

Objectives:

  • Establish if vaginal/cervical impedance changes during goat per-estrus are associated with changes in LH levels and ultrasound imaging detection of ovulation
  • Determine if vaginal/cervical impedance changes during goat peri-estrus can be used to predict time of ovulation

 

Title: Effects of an enzyme additive on hay intake and fiber digestion

Experiment Number: SH-11-19

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: S. Hart

Objectives:

  • Test effects of an enzyme additive on fiber digestion and intake in weaned Boer cross wethers

 

Title: Effects of emodin on cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Haemonchus contortus antigen in vitro

Experiment Number: RZ-11-20

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, and D. Zhou

Objectives:

  • Determine whether emodin can alter cytokine expression in PBMC stimulated by H. contortus L3 antigen

 

Title: Effects of the number of animals per pen and time of automated feeder access on feed intake, efficiency of feed utilization, and feeding behavior by yearling Boer wethers

Experiment Number: YT-12-01

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of the number of animals per pen (maximal potential average feeder access per animal of 2 and 4 hours) and time of automated feeder access (continuous, night, and day) on feed intake, efficiency of feed utilization, and feeding behavior by yearling Boer wethers.

 

Title: Evaluation of the efficacy of colostrum replacer in dairy kids

Experiment Number: SH-12-02

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and D. Haiines

Objectives:

  • Evaluate the efficacy of a reformulated Land O'Lakes Kid's Choice Total CR as an antibody product for replacement of maternal colostrum in newborn kids.

 

Title: Development of a Model to Evaluate Methods of Modifying Cattle Barb Wire Fence with Electric Fence Strands for Goat Containment – Effects of Exposure of Boer and Spanish Does to a Fence Only of Barb Wire Between Latin Square Periods (Study Number 4)

Experiment Number: YT-12-04

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, J. Hayes, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine appropriateness of conditions in a method to be developed for evaluating efficacy of electric fence additions to cattle barb wire fence for goat containment. Specific objectives are to determine effects of a washout treatment of exposure to a fence of barb wire only between measurement periods of a 5 × 5 Latin square on behavior of Boer and Spanish does in evaluation pens with different electric fence strand treatments.

 


 

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