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Goat milk constituents and processing characteristics with different feeding systems

K. A. Soryal, S. S. Zeng, S. P. Hart, B. R. Min, B. Bah, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

E (Kika) de la Garza Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, Langston, OK

Pasture production of goat milk is being studied to reduce production cost and improve production viability of small family farms. The present work focused on effect of some feeding treatments on milk composition and processing characteristics during a whole lactation. This study included four feeding treatments: 1) conventional confinement system with alfalfa hay feeding and 0.66 kg concentrate / kg milk/d; 2) high level of concentrate (0.66 kg/kg milk) with grazing; 3) medium level of concentrate (0.33 kg/kg milk) with grazing; and 4) no concentrate supplementation, pasture alone. Milk samples of 5 Alpine goats from each treatment group were collected twice monthly from April to September 2001 and analyzed for major and minor constituents. Two batches of milk from each treatment group were collected at the same times for processing into soft cheese, Egyptian Domiati. Cheese samples were organoleptically scored and chemically analyzed for major and minor constituents, when fresh or after 1 or 2 months of pickling in whey solution. Fat, protein, and total solids of milk were higher (P < 0.01) for treatment 2 (3.46, 3.07, and 11.22%, respectively) compared with other treatments (3.11, 3.00, and 10.82%; 3.20, 3.05, and 10.93%; 3.22, 2.83, and10.56% for treatments 1, 3, and 4, respectively). Fat and total solids showed higher values at the last month of lactation (3.78 and 11.45, respectively) than those of other months (P < 0.10). Somatic cell counts was highest (P < 0.05) among goats in treatment group 2 and 3 (3.06 and 3.04 million/mL, respectively) and did not differ during lactation. Total organoleptic score of fresh cheese was not affected by treatment. The highest cheese flavor was detected for treatment 4 during June and July (P < 0.01), whereas body and texture of cheese was not influenced by feeding treatment at any time. Cheese yield was highest ( P < 0.01) for treatment 2 at the beginning and end of lactation 16.97 and 16.61%, respectively). In conclusion, the composition of goat milk and the quality of Domiati cheese were affected by the feeding treatment and stage of lactation.


 

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