Evaluation of Genetic Relativeness and Diversity in Five Goat Breeds Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis
J. Luo1, Z. G. Liu2, G. S. Yang2, and X. M. Zhen3
1E(Kika) de la Garza Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, Langston, OK, 2Northwest Agricultural University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China, 3Biotechnology Laboratory of Hubei Agricultural Science Academy, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
The primary objective of this study was to apply a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique to evaluate genetic relativeness and diversity among five goat breeds, namely Boer, Saanen, Angora, Shaannan white, and Guanzhong dairy goat. They were meat, dairy, fiber, and indigenous dual-purpose breeds, respectively. The analysis was based on band-sharing frequency, genetic distance, and Shannon diversity index. Blood samples were collected from 17 Boer, 14 Saanen, 13 Angora, 11 Shaannan white, and 5 Guanzhong dairy goats via jagular venipuncture for each individual DNA isolation. DNA pools were formed for 7 individuals from each breed, except the 5 Guanzhong dairy goats. A total of 20 arbitrary 10mer primers with GC content of 40, 50, 60, or 70%, designed according to references and manufacturer's recommendations and synthesized by Dalian Biotechnology company of China thereafter, were employed in RAPD analysis. Seventeen of 20 primers detected an amplified pattern with 2 to 11 bands, 4 of which had amplified polymorphic fragments in each breed; the between-breed average band sharing frequency was from 0.91 to 0.98. Nei's standard genetic distance was in the range of 0.02 to 0.09, and a dendrogram based on Nei's distance from amplification patterns of four random primers in five goat breeds was constructed. As expected, the estimate of distance between Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goat was lowest among goat breeds. The Shannon diversity index of each goat breed was 0.54, 0.19, 0.12, 0.35 and 0.34, respectively, which indicated a large genetic diversity in Boer, Shaannan white, and Guanzhong dairy goat populations in the sampling region. It was confirmed that RAPD marker analysis can be used to determine genetic diversity and relativeness among and within goat breeds.
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