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2009
OKLAHOMA
MEAT BUCK PERFORMANCE TEST
FINAL REPORT

June 6 - September 19, 2009

Sponsored by the
Oklahoma Meat Goat Association
and
Agricultural Research and Extension Program at Langston University

Introduction

Meat goat production represents the most rapidly growing animal industry in the US today, and is becoming a mainstream livestock enterprise. To further genetic progress through the identification of superior sires in the industry, Langston University and the Oklahoma Meat Goat Association established a meat goat performance test in 1997.

Entry

The eleventh annual meat buck performance test started June 6, 2009 with 93 bucks enrolled from 16 different breeders (51 bucks from private producers and 42 from Langston University). Geographical distribution is given in the table below.

State Bucks
KS 7
NE 7
OK 18 (42)
TX 17
Total 51 (93)

Breed distribution is 77 Boer (42 Boer from Langston University); 1 Boer Cross; 9 Kiko; 3 Ranger; and 3 Spanish.

Bucks were given a physical examination by Dr. Lionel Dawson, dewormed with Cydectin (moxidectin), deloused with Atroban De-Lice, given a preemptive injection of long-acting antibiotic for upper respiratory infections, and those bucks that needed booster or initial vaccinations for enterotoxemia and caseous lymphandinitis. All bucks underwent a two-week adjustment period and the test officially started on June 24, 2009.

Half of the bucks were randomly assigned within breeder to either Calan feeders or Feed Intake Recording Equipment (FIRE) system.

Average age in days and entry weight are detailed in the table below.

Data Average
Average of Entry Weight (lbs) 42
Average of Entry Age (days) 84

Adjustment Period

All bucks underwent an adjustment period of two weeks immediately after check-in. During the adjustment period, bucks were acclimated to the test ration and to the Calan feeders or to the FIRE system. For the Calan feeders, each buck wears a collar with an electronic "key" encased in hard plastic. The key unlocks the door to only one Calan feeder, thus enabling the buck to eat out of his individual feeder. Each morning, yesterday's feed that remains in the Calan feeder is weighed and removed from the Calan feeder. Fresh feed is weighted and placed into the Calan feeder. The difference in weights between the fresh feed place in the Calan feeder one morning and the remaining feed the next morning is the amount consumed. Because only one goat is capable of opening the Calan door and eating, it is possible to calculate the feed intake of the individual bucks. For the FIRE system, feed intake is automatically recorded every time a buck enters into the FIRE system to eat.

The area immediately around Calan and FIRE feeders and waterers is concrete, however, the large majority of the inside pen is earth and is covered by pine shavings. Pine shavings were periodically added as needed to maintain fresh bedding. Bucks had free access to water provided by float-valve raised waterers. Whenever the weather was permitting, the bucks had access to the outside pens as well as the inside pens.

This year we were fortunate to hire a Langston University undergraduate, Ms. Amanda Manley, to help with the bucks. Amanda has done a wonderful job with the bucks.

Ration

Nutritionists at Langston University formulated the following ration. In 1999, the amount of salt and ammonium chloride was doubled due to problems with urinary calculi the previous year. Except for the increase in salt and ammonium chloride, the ration was unchanged from that which was used in the first two meat buck performance tests. The ration was fed free-choice during the adjustment period and during the 12-week test.

Ingredient Percentage (as fed)
Cottonseed hulls 29.07%
Alfalfa meal 19.98%
Cottonseed meal 15.99%
Ground corn 15.99%
Wheat midds 9.99%
Pellet Partner (binder) 5.00%
Ammonium chloride 1.00%
Yeast 1.00%
Calcium Carbonate 0.95%
Salt 0.50%
Trace mineral salt 0.50%
Vitamin A 0.02%
Rumensin 0.01%
TOTAL 100.00%

The crude protein content of the ration is 16% with 2.5% fat, 20.4% fiber and 60.6% TDN. Calcium phosphorus and sodium levels are .74%, .37% and 1.07%, respectively. Zinc concentration is 33.04 ppm, copper is 17.15 ppm and selenium is .21 ppm. In 2003, competitive bids were sought for the buck-test feed and Bluebonnet Feeds of Ardmore, OK was awarded the contract to supply feed for the buck performance test for 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and Stillwater Milling in 2008 and 2009.

ABGA Approved Performance Test

In early 2000, the Oklahoma performance test was designated by the American Boer Goat Association Board of Directors as an ABGA Approved Performance Test. Qualified fullblood or purebred Boer bucks will be eligible to earn points towards entry into the "Ennobled Herd Book".Candidate bucks must pass a pre‑performance test inspection conducted by one (1) or more ABGA approved breeders.

Ten (10) points will be awarded a Boer buck who shows an average daily weight gain (ADG) in the top five percent (5%) of the animals on test. Five (5) points will be awarded a Boer buck who shows an average daily weight gain (ADG) in the next fifteen percent (15%) of the animals on test.All bucks must gain at least three‑tenths (.3) pounds per day to be awarded any points.

International Boer Goat Association, Inc. Sanctioned Test

In 2003, the Oklahoma buck performance test was sanctioned by the International Boer Goat Association, Inc.

Gain

The official performance test started on May 21 after the adjustment period was finished. Weights at the beginning of the test averaged 51 lbs with a range of 32 to 84 lbs. Weights at the end of the test averaged 92 lbs with a range of 65 to 139 lbs. Weight gain for the test averaged 41 lbs with a range of 18 to 64 lbs.

Average Daily Gain (ADG)

For the test, the bucks gained on averaged 0.49 lbs/day with a range of 0.21 lbs/day to 0.76 lbs/day.

Feed Efficiency (Feed Conversion Ratio)

For the test, the bucks consumed an average of 294 lbs of feed with a range of 154 to 496 lbs.

For the test, the bucks averaged a feed efficiency of 7.34 (feed efficiency is defined as the number of lbs. of feed needed for one lbs. of gain), with a range of 4.22 to 11.79.

Muscling

The average loin eye area as determined by ultrasonography was 1.8 square inches with a range of 1.2 to 2.3 square inches and the average right rear leg circumference was 14.9 inches with a range of 12.0 to 19.5 inches.

Index

For 2009, the index was calculated using the following parameters:

30% on efficiency (units of feed per units of gain)

30% on average daily gain

20% on area of longissimus muscle (loin) at the first lumbar site as measured by real time ultrasound adjusted by the goat's metabolic body weight:

    [area of longissimus muscle (loin)] / BW0.75

20% circumference around the widest part of the right rear leg as measured with a tailor's tape adjusted by the goat's metabolic body weight:

    [circumference of right rear leg] / BW0.75

The adjustment to metabolic body weight gives lighter weight goats a fair comparison of muscling to heavier goats.

The deviation from the average of the parameters measured from the goats in the performance test was used in the index calculation. Thus, the average index score for bucks on-test was 100%.Bucks that are above average have indexes above 100% and those below average have index scores below 100%.

Congratulations

The Oklahoma Meat Goat Association and the Agricultural Research and Extension Program at Langston University congratulate:

  • Mr. Sam Stephens of Elm Creek, NE for having the Top-Indexing buck in the 2009 Oklahoma Meat Buck Performance Test

Also, deserving congratulations are:

  • Mr. Sam Stephens of Elm Creek, NE for having the #1 Fastest-Gaining buck
  • Mr. Jim Rosenbaum of Gainesville, TX for having the #2 Fastest-Gaining buck
  • Mr. A.L. Paul of Aubry, TX for having the #3 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck
  • Mr. Jim Hollinger of Lyons, KS for having the #3 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck
  • Mr. Ron Dilley of Stillwater, OK for having the #5 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck
  • Mr. John Scott of Lexington, NE for having the #5 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck
  • Mr. Jim Hicks of Bristow, OK for having the Most-Feed-Efficient buck
  • Mr. Cody Gann of Sonora, TX for having the Most-Heavily-Muscled buck

Acknowledgments

The Buck Test supervisor wishes to acknowledge Dr. Lionel Dawson of Oklahoma State University for his contributions as the admitting and on-call veterinarian, Ms. Amanda Manley for her management and oversight of the day-to-day activities, Mr. Jerry Hayes and Mr. Erick Loetz of Langston University for aid and supervision, Mr. Les Hutchens and his associates at Reproductive Enterprises, Inc. for conducting the ultrasound measurements for the loin eye area, and Stillwater Milling for custom mixing the feed.

2009 Buck Performance Test supervised by Dr. Wenping Hu and assisted by Dr. Terry A. Gipson

Report prepared by Dr. Terry A. Gipson, Goat Extension Specialist, Langston University.

The Cooperative Extension Program at Langston University provides educational programs to individuals regardless of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, disability or status as a veteran. Issued in furtherance of Extension work, Act of September 29, 1977, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


 
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