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2002
OKLAHOMA
MEAT BUCK PERFORMANCE TEST
FINAL REPORT

May 4 - August 17, 2002

Sponsored by the
Oklahoma Meat Goat Association
and
Agricultural Research and Extension Program at Langston University

Introduction

Meat goat production represents the most rapidly growing animal industry in the US today, and is becoming a mainstream livestock enterprise. To further genetic progress through the identification of superior sires in the industry, Langston University and the Oklahoma Meat Goat Association established a meat goat performance test in 1997.

Entry

The sixth annual meat buck performance test started May 4, 2002 with 51 bucks enrolled from 17 different breeders. Forty-six of the bucks were fullblood Boers, three Kiko bucks, one Kiko-cross, and one Boer-cross buck. Twenty-eight bucks were from Texas, 17 from Oklahoma and 6 from Illinois. The test was open to purebred and crossbred bucks born between December 1, 2001 and March 31, 2002. Bucks were given a thorough physical examination by Dr. Lionel Dawson, dewormed with Valbazen (albendazole), foot bathed with Nolvasan, deloused with Atroban De?Lice, given a preemptive injection of Nuflor for upper respiratory infections, and for those bucks that needed a booster or initial vaccinations for enterotoxemia and caseous lymphandinitis, the vaccination was given. All bucks were retagged by Extension staff after admission to the performance test. Four weeks after check?in, all bucks were given a booster vaccination for enterotoxemia and caseous lymphandinitis. On May 4, the entrance weight for the 51 bucks averaged 51.8 lbs with a range of 31.0 to 82.5 lbs.

Adjustment Period

All bucks underwent an adjustment period of eighteen days immediately after check?in. During the adjustment period, bucks were acclimated to the test ration and to the Calan feeders. Nine bucks were assigned to each 20' x 20' inside pen equipped with nine Calan feeders. Each pen also had a 20' x 20' outside run. The inside and outside pen space was separated by an overhead door, which can be raised or lowered as the weather dictates. Every other pen was also equipped with a fan to circulate air in the barn complex whenever needed. The grass in the outside pens was mowed often, and grazing was negligible. Each buck wore a collar with an electronic "key" encased in hard plastic. The key unlocks the door to only one Calan feeder, thus enabling the buck to eat out of his individual feeder. Each morning, the feed remaining in the Calan feeder from the day before is weighed and removed from the Calan feeder. Fresh feed is weighted and placed into the Calan feeder. The difference in weights between the fresh feed place in the Calan feeder one morning and the remaining feed the next morning is the amount consumed. Because only one goat is capable of opening the Calan door and eating, it is possible to calculate the feed intake of the individual bucks. The area immediately around the Calan feeders and waterers is concrete, however, the large majority of the inside pen is earth and is covered by pine shavings. Pine shavings were periodically added as needed to maintain fresh bedding. Bucks had free access to water provided by a float-valve raised waterers. Unfortunately, on 5/12/02, Buck #1019 was found dead. The buck was taken to Oklahoma State University's Diagnostic Laboratory. The post mortem report indicated that the animal had died of asymptomatic polioencephalomalacia. No other animal has shown any sign of major illness and to date the health problems of the bucks on-test have been minimal.

Ration

Nutritionists at Langston University formulated the following ration. In 1999, the amount of salt and ammonium chloride was doubled due to problems with urinary calculi the previous year. Except for the increase in salt and ammonium chloride, the ration was unchanged from that which was used in the first two meat buck performance tests. The ration was fed free-choice during the adjustment period and during the 12-week test.

Ingredient Percentage (as fed)
Cottonseed hulls 29.07%
Alfalfa meal 19.98%
Cottonseed meal 15.99%
Ground corn 15.99%
Wheat midds 9.99%
Pellet Partner (binder) 5.00%
Ammonium chloride 1.00%
Yeast 1.00%
Calcium Carbonate 0.95%
Salt 0.50%
Trace mineral salt 0.50%
Vitamin A 0.02%
Rumensin 0.01%
TOTAL 100.00%

The crude protein content of the ration is 16% with 2.5% fat, 20.4% fiber and 60.6% TDN.Calcium phosphorus and sodium levels are .74%, .37% and 1.07%, respectively. Zinc concentration is 33.04 ppm, copper is 17.15 ppm and selenium is .21 ppm.

ABGA Approved Performance Test

In early 2000, the Oklahoma performance test was designated by the American Boer Goat Association Board of Directors as an ABGA Approved Performance Test. Qualified fullblood or purebred Boer bucks will be eligible to earn points towards entry into the "Ennobled Herd Book".Candidate bucks must pass a pre‑performance test inspection conducted by one (1) or more ABGA approved breeders.

Ten (10) points will be awarded a Boer buck who shows an average daily weight gain (ADG) in the top five percent (5%) of the animals on test. Five (5) points will be awarded a Boer buck who shows an average daily weight gain (ADG) in the next fifteen percent (15%) of the animals on test.All bucks must gain at least three‑tenths (.3) pounds per day to be awarded any points.

The Oklahoma performance test continues to grow and to serve the meat goat industry.

Gain

The official performance test started on May 23 after the adjustment period was finished. Weights at the beginning of the test averaged 58.3 lbs with a range of 36.3 to 91.4 lbs. Weights at the end of the test averaged 105.8 lbs with a range of 72.7 to 150.9 lbs. Weight gains for the test averaged 47.5 lbs with a range of 20.9 to 67.2 lbs.

Average Daily Gain (ADG)

For the test, the bucks gained on averaged .57 lbs./day with a range from .25 lbs./day to .80 lbs./day.

Feed Efficiency

For the test, the bucks consumed an average of 338.6 lbs. of feed with a range of 168.5 lbs. to 548.8 lbs. For the test, the bucks averaged a feed efficiency of 7.2 (feed efficiency is defined as the number of lbs. of feed needed for one lbs. of gain), with a range of 4.5 to 10.3.

Muscling

The average loin eye area as determined by ultrasonography was 1.65 square inches with a range of 1.22 to 2.17 square inches and the average right rear leg circumference was 20.2 inches with a range of 16.0 to 20.2 inches.

Index

For 2002, the index was calculated using the following parameters:

30% on efficiency (units of feed per units of gain)

30% on average daily gain

20% on area of longissimus muscle (loin) at the first lumbar site as measured by real time ultrasound adjusted by the goat's metabolic body weight:

    [area of longissimus muscle (loin)] / BW0.75

20% circumference around the widest part of the hind right leg as measuredwith a tailor's tape adjusted by the goat's metabolic body weight:

    [circumference of hind left leg] / BW0.75

The adjustment to metabolic body weight gives lighter weight goats a fair comparison of muscling to heavier goats.

The deviation from the average of the parameters measured from the goats in the performance test was used in the index calculation. Thus, the average index score for bucks on-test was 100%.Bucks that are above average have indexes above 100% and those below average have index scores below 100%.

Congratulations

The Oklahoma Meat Goat Association and the Agricultural Research and Extension Program at Langston University congratulate:

  • Mr. Martin Peters of Barksdale, TX for having the Top-Indexing buck in the 2002 Oklahoma Meat Buck Performance Test

Also, deserving congratulations are:

  • Mr. Dan Wagner of Sonora, TX for having the #1 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck

  • Ms. Judy Hollis of Sonora, TX for having the #1 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck

  • Mr. Al Paul of Aubrey, TX for having the #3 Fastest-Gaining buck

  • Ms. Lynn Farmer of Mullin, TX for having the #4 Fastest-Gaining buck

  • L&W Boer Goats of Freedom, OK for having the #5 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck

  • L&W Boer Goats of Freedom, OK for having the #5 (tie) Fastest-Gaining buck

  • South Forty Farms of Mt. Olive, IL for having the Most-Feed-Efficient buck

  • Mr. Jim Rosenbaum of Gainesville, TX for having the Most-Heavily-Muscled buck.

Acknowledgments

The Buck Test supervisor wishes to acknowledge Dr. Lionel Dawson of Oklahoma State University for his contributions as the admitting and on-call veterinarian, Ms. Hong Gou Costello for her management and oversight of the day-to-day activities, Dr. Mario Villaquiran and Mr. Jerry Hayes of Langston University for aid and supervision, Mr. Les Hutchens and his associates at Reproductive Enterprises, Inc. for conducting the ultrasound measurements for the loin eye area and the breeding soundness exams, and Stillwater Milling for custom mixing the feed.

Report prepared by Dr. Terry A. Gipson, Goat Extension Specialist, Langston University.

The Cooperative Extension Program at Langston University provides educational programs to individuals regardless of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, disability or status as a veteran. Issued in furtherance of Extension work, Act of September 29, 1977, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


 
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